Plutonium Pu (Element 94) of Periodic Table

94 Pu Plutonium

Appearance:  Silvery white, Tarnishing to dark gray in air

Mass number:  244

Atomic weight:  244.0642 g/mol

Atomic number:  94

Electrons:  94

Protons:  94

Neutrons: 150

Period:  7

Block:  f

Element category:  Actinide

Electrons per shell:  K2, L8, M18, N32, O24, P8, Q2

Electron configuration:  1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p64f145d106s26p65f67s2

Phase:  Solid

Melting point:  912.5 k (639.4 oC)

Boiling point:  3505 k (3228 oC)

Density:  19816 kg/m3(In Solid), 16630 kg/m3(In Liquid at M.p)

Half Life(s):  2.50E+15

Lifetime(s):  3.60E+15

Decay mode:  α decay

Neutron cross secton (Barns):  1.7

Heat of fusion:  2.82 kJ/mol

Heat of vaporization:  333.5 kJ/mol

Molar heat capacity:  35.5 J/(mol•K)

Oxidation states:  8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1

Electronegativity:  1.28

Valence:  6

Ionization energies:  1st: 584.7 kJ/mol

Covalent radius:  187±1 pm

Crystal structure:  Monoclinic

Grid parameters:  a=6.183 Å, b=4.822 Å, c=10.963 Å, β=101.8o

Speed of sound:  2260 m/s

Thermal expansion:  46.7 μm/(m∙K)

Thermal conductivity:  6.74 W/(m∙K)

Electrical resistivity:  1.460 μΩ∙m

Electrical conductivity:  670000 s/m

sElectrical type:  Conductor

Magnetic ordering:  Paramagnetic

Mass magnetic susceptibility:  0.0000000314 m3/kg

Molar magnetic susceptibility: 0.00000007662 m3/kg

Molar volume:  0.000012313 m3/mol

Young’s modulus:  96 Gpa

Shear modulus:  43 Gpa

Poisson ratio:  0.21

CAS Number:  7440-07-5

Naming:  After Dwarf Planet Pluto

Discovery:  Glenn T. Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, Joseph W. Kennedy, Edwin McMillan (1940 – 1)

Isotopes:  238Pu 239Pu 240Pu 241Pu 242Pu 244Pu

Uses:  It is used in Nuclear wepons(1Kg Pu equivalent to over 10,000 tonnes of chemical explosive) and Nuclear Power(as a source of energy on Space Missions)

Biological role:  It is Extremely toxic due to its radioactivity

Natural abundance:  Greatest source of Plutonium is the irradiation of uranium reactors,  This produces the Isotope 239Pu. Plutonium metal is made by reducing Plutonium tetra-fluoride with calcium.


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