Biology Syllabus

This syllabus can be also called as Universal Biology Syllabus, where we are covering almost all topics, which will be very helpful to you for crack any Competitive exams of the world.



Diversity of Living Organism



















 The Living World



– What is living ?
– Biodiversity
– Need for classification
– Three domains of life
Taxonomy & Nomenclature – Taxonomy
– Systematics
– Basics of Systematic Study
– Difference between Classical & Modern Taxonomy
– Nomenclature (Polynomial & Binomial system)
– Main Rules of ICBN
Taxonomic Categories – Types of Taxonomic Categories,
– Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy,
– Types of Taxonomy
Tools for Study of Taxonomy (Taxonomical Aids) – Herbarium,
– Botanical Gardens,
– Taxonomy Museums,
– Zoological Parks (Zoo)
Biological Classification





Kingdom Monera – Salient features (Characteristics) of Monera,
– Classification of Monera
– Bacteria Shape,
– Structure of Bacteria,
– Staining of Bacteria,
– Nutrition in Bacteria,
– Arhaebacteria,
– Mycoplasma (PPLO)
– Cyanobacteria
– Difference Between Bacteria & Cyanobacteria
Kingdom Protisa – Life cycle in Protists
– Salient features (Characteristics) of Protista 
– Classification of Protista
– Major Groups of Protists (Chrysophytes, Dianoflagellates, Euglenoids, Slime Moulds)
– Protozoans (1. Flagellated Protozoans, 2. Amoebid Protozoans, 3. Sporozoans, 4. Ciliated Protozoans)
Kingdom Fungi – Salient features (characteristics) of Fungi (Thallus Organization, Specialized formation, Cell Organization)
– Nutrition
– Reproduction
– Classification of Fungi (Phycomycetes, Rhizopus/Mucor, Albugo, Ascomycetes, Yeast, Basidiomycetes, Deuteromycetes)
Kingdom Plantae – Classification of Plantae (Thallophyta, Bryophytes, Gymnosperms)
Kingdom Animalia – Viruses, Viroids, & Lichens
 Plant Kingdom




– Salient features (characteristics) of Algae (Size, Reproduction)
– Occurrence (Thallus Organisation, Pigmentation)
– Economic Importance of Algae
– Resemblances between Algae & Fungi
– Classification of Algae (Chlorophyceae, Differences between Isogamy & Anisogamy, Phaeophyceae, Rhodophyceae)
Bryophytes – Differences Between Antheridia & Archegonia
– Salient features (characteristics) of Bryophytes
– Economic importance of Bryophytes
– Life Cycle of Bryophytes
– Classification of Bryophytes (Liverworts, Mosses, Funaria, Riccia)
Pteridophytes – Salient features (characteristics) of Pteridophytes (Reproduction)
– Affinites of Pteridophytes (Similarities with Bryophytes and Spermatophytes)
– Classification (Salient features of sub-phyla)
– Selaginelia
– Fern
– Economic importance
Gymnosperms – Salient features (characteristics) of Gymnosperms (Reproduction)
– Classification of Gymnosperms
– Life cycle of Gymnosperms
– Gymnosperms wood
– Pinus
– Cycas
Angiosperms – Reproduction
– Classification (Dicotyledons, Monocotyledons, Longevity, Habitat)
– Salient features (characteristics) of Angiosperms
– Plant life cycles & Alternation of generation
Animal Kingdom 







Phylum Protozoa  

– Brief history
– Salient features (characteristics) of Protozoa
– Classification of Protozoa (1. Flagellata or Mastigophora, 2. Rhizopoda, 3. Ciliophora, 4. Sporozoa)

Phylum Porifera (Sponge) – Introduction to Phylum Porifera
– Brief history
– Body Organisation
– Canal System
– Skeleton
– Unique Features
– Salient Features (Characteristics) (Calcarea, Hexactinellida, Demospongia)
Phylum Cnidaria (Coelenterata) – Introduction to Phylum Cnidaria
– Brief history (Salient Features)
– Classification of Coelenterata (1. Hydrozoa, 2. Scyphozoa, 3. Anthozoa)
Phylum Ctenophora, Platyhelminthes, & Aschelminthes (Nematoda) – Phylum Ctenophora (Coelenterata)
– Salient features (characteristics)
– Classification of Ctenophora (1. Cydippida, 2. Lobata, 3. Cestida, 4. Platyctenea)– Phylum Platyhelminthes
– Brief History (Salient features)
– Classification of Platyhelminthes (1. Turbellaria, 2. Trematoda, 3. Cestoda)– Phylum Aschelminthes (Nematoda)
– Class Phasmidia
– Class Aphasmidia
Phylum  Annelida, Arthropoda, Mollusca, and Echinodermata – Phylum Annelida
– Introduction
– Classification & Unique features– Phylum Arthropoda
– Introduction
– Classification & Unique features– Phylum Mollusca
– Introduction
– Classification & Unique features– Phylum Echinodermata
– Introduction
– Classification & Unique features
Phylum Chordata, Super class Pisces – Phylum Chordata
– Difference between lower and higher chordates
– Classification of Chordata (A. Acrania (Protochordata), B. Craniata (Euchordata))– Superclass Pisces
– General characteristics of Chondrichthyes
– Classification of Chondrichthyes
– General characters of Osteichthyes (1. Crossopterygii, 2. Dipnoi)
Class – Amphibia, Raptilia, Aves, and Mammalia – Class Amphibia
– Classification– Reptilia
– General characterstics of Reptilia
– Classification– Class Aves
– Characteristics & Classification– Class Mammalia
– Characteristics & Classification

Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants














Morphology of Flowering Plants







Root – Characteristics of the root
– Parts of the Root
– Types of Root system (Tap root & Adventitious Root)
– Modification of Roots
Stem – Characteristics of Stem
– Diverse forms of Stem
– Modification of Stems
Leaf – Characteristics of Leaf
– Parts of a typical Leaf
– Types of stipules
Flower – Parts of a Typical Flower
– General Description of a Flower
– Symmetry of Flower (Arrangement of Floral Organs)
– Detailed Structure of Flower
– Bract
– Thalamus
– Perianth
– Calyx
– Corolla (Forms of Corolla)
– Aestivation
– Quincuncial
– Androecium
Fruit – True fruit (False fruit or Pseudocarp)
– Classification of Fruits
– Fleshy Fruits are of following types
– Simple Dry-Fruit
– Four types of Schizocarpic Fruits
– Aggregate fruits
– Composite fruits
– Dispersal of Fruits, and Seeds
Families of Flowering Plants – Subfamily – Papilionatae (Fabaceae)
– Solanaceae
– Liliaceae
– Cruciferae (Brassicaceae)
– Malvaceae
– Compositeae (Asteraceae)
Tissues – Tissues
– Classification of Meristematic Tissue
– Composition of Apical Meristem in different Plants
– Permanent Tissues
– Parenchyma (Characteristic & modification)
– Collenchyma (Characteristics, Occurrence, & Classification)
– Sclerenchyma (Classification)
Anatomy of Flowering Plants 




Xylem and Phloem – Complex tissues
– Xylem
– The Elements of Xylem (Tracheids, Vessels, Xylem Fibres, Xylem Parenchyma)
– Phloem (Companion cells, Phloem Fibers and Parenchyma)
– Special Tissue or Secretory Tissue (Laticiferous and Glandular Tissue)
Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants – Root
– Stem
– Leaf
– Inflorescence
– Flower
– Fruit
– Seed
Internal Structure of Stems, Roots and Leaves –  Internal structure of Dicot stems (Epidermis, Cortex, Pericycle, Vascular Bundle, Pith)
– Internal structure of Monocotyledon Stem
– Internal structure of Typical Dicotyledon Root
– Internal structure of MonocotyledonRoot
– Internal structure of Orchid Root
– Internal structure of Dorsiventral leaves
– Internal structure of Isobilateral Leaves
– Vascular Bundles of leaves
– Anomalous primary structure (in dicotyledon & in monocot stem)
– Waiting meristem concept
Secondary Growth – Secondary Growth in Dicot stem
– Classification of wood
– Function
– Bark
– Kinds of Bark
– Secondary Growth in Dicot Root
– Functions of secondary meristem
– Anomalous Secondary Growth in Dicot Stem
– Anomalous Secondary Growth in Monocot Stem

Structural Organisation in Animals



Animal tissues – Kinds of Tissues (Epithelial, Connective, Muscle, and Neural Tissue)
Earthworm – Morphology
– Anatomy
– Functions of different systems (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, nervous and reproductive)
Cockroach – Morphology
– Anatomy
– Functions of different systems (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, nervous and reproductive)
Frog – Systematic position of Rana Tigrina
– Anatomy
– Difference between simple Epithelium & Compound Epithelium
– Difference between Tendon & Ligament
– Difference between Blood plasma & Blood Serum
– Functions of different systems (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, nervous and reproductive)

Cell Structure and Function







Cell-The Unit of Life 



  – Cell theory & cell as the basic unit of life
– Plant cell & Animal cell
Prokaryotic cells – Structure of prokaryotic cells
– Cell Envelope
Eukaryotic cells – Structure of eukaryotic cells
– Cell Membrane (Lamellar Models, Mosaic Model, Membrane transport)
– Bulk Transport
– Cell wall (Growth of Cell Wall)
– Cytoplasm
– Endomembrane System (The Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus (Golgi bodies), Lysosomes (Types of Lysosomes), Vacuoles)
– Miochondria (Enzymes of Mitochondria)
– Plastids (Types of Plastids (Leucoplasts, Chromoplasts, Chloroplast))
– Ribosomes
– Cytoskeleton
– Nucleus (nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus)
– Centrosome  & Centrioles (ultrastructure and function)
– Cilia & Flagella
– Microbodies



Carbohydrates and Lipids – Micromolecules
– Carbohydrates (monosaccharides, Oligosaccharides)
– Lipids
Proteins and Amino acids – Protein (Structure of Proteins, Classification of Proteins, Function of proteins)
– Amino acids (Structure & Composition, Classification, Functions of Amino Acids)
Nuclic Acids & Enzymes – Nucleic Acids (Types of Nucleosides & Nucleotides)
– Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid  (Configuration of DNA Molecule, Types of DNA)
– Ribo Nucleic Acid (Types of RNA)
Cell Cycle and Cell Division 


Phases of Cell Cycle and Cell Division – G1 Phase/Pre- DNA Synthetic Phase/post Mitotic/Gap 1st
– S-phase/Synthetic Phase
– G2 Phase/Post Synthetic phase/Pre Mitotic/Gap 2nd
– M-phase/Dividing phase/Mitotic Phase
– G0 Phase (Quiescent Stage)
– Differentiation phase
– Duration of Cell Cycle
– Regulation of Cell Cycle
Mitosis and Meiosis – Mitosis
– Karyokinesis (Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase)
– Cytokinesis (Significance & Types of Mitosis)– Meiosis
– Process of Meiosis
– Meiosis I (Karyokinesis I, Prophase I, Zygotene/Zygonema, Pachytene/Pachynema, Diplotene/Diplonema, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I, Interphase)
– Meiosis – II (Karyokinesis II, Cytokinesis II)
– Difference between Mitosis & Meiosis
– Types of Meiosis

Plant Physiology

Transport in Plants





  – Movement of water, gases and nutrients
– Cell to cell transport
– Diffusion (Diffusion pressure, Diffusion pressure deficit (DPD) or Sunction pressure (SP), Factors Influencing rate of diffusion, Significance of Diffusion)
– Facilitated diffusion
– Diffusion of gases
– Active transport
Plant-water relations – Imbibition (Characteristics and Factors Influencing the Rate of Imbibition)
– Permeability (Types of Membranes on the Basis of Permeability)
– Water potential
– Osmosis
– Plasmolysis (Significance of Plasmolysis)
Long distance transport of water – Absorption of Water (Soil water, Water Absorbing Organs, Pathway of water movement in Root, Ascent of Sap)
– Water movement up a plant (Transpiration pull, Root pressure & Guttation)
Uptake & Translocation (Transport) of mineral nutrients – Food Translocation in Plants
– Factors affecting translocation
– Phloem transport (Mass Flow Hypothesis or The Pressure Flow)
Transpiration – Types of Transpiration
– Structure of Stomata
– Mechanism of Opening & Closing of Stomata
– Factors Affecting Stomatal opening & closing
– Factors affecting the rate of Transpiration
– Significance of Transpiration
Mineral Nutrition



  – Hydroponics (elementary idea of hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition)
– Essential minerals
– Role of Macro and micronutrients
– Mineral toxicity
– Function & Deficiency Symptoms of Essential Minerals
Nitrogen metabolism – Nitrogen Cycle
– Nitrogen Nutrition in Plants
– Mechanism of Biological Nitrogen Fixation
– Minerals for Plants
Mineral Absorption Passive Absorption of minerals
Active Ion Absorption
Factors Affecting Mineral Absorption
Photosynthesis in Higher Plants



  – Photosynthesis as a mean of autotrophic nutrition
– Site of photosynthesis,
– Pigments involved in photosynthesis (elementary idea)
– Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis
– Cyclic and non cyclic photophosphorylation
– Chemiosmotic hypothesis
– Photorespiration
– C3 and C4 pathways
– Factors affecting photosynthesis.
Mechanism of Photosynthesis – Light Reaction
– Quantum yield
– Bariochemical reaction of Calvin Cycle
C4 Cycle (Hatch & Slack Pathway) – Special Features of C4 Plants
– CAM Plants
– C2 Cycle
– Factors Affecting Photosynthasis
– Bacterial Photosynthesis
– Chemosynthesis
– Significance of Photosynthesis
Respiration in Plants Plant Respiration – Cellular Respiration
– Do Plants Breathe ?
– Exchange of gases
– Respiration in Roots, Stems, & Leaves
– Types of Respiration
– Aerobic Respiration
– The Respiration Balance Sheet
– Amphibolic Pathway (Example of Amphibolic Pathway)
– Difference Between Respiration & Photosynthesis
– Difference between Aerobic Respiration & Anaerobic Respiration
– Difference between Breathing & Respiration
 Steps of Respiration – Glycolysis EMP (Embden, Meyerhof, Pamas) pathway
– Formation of Acetyl-Co-A (Link/Gateway Reaction)
– Kreb Cycle/TCA (Tricarboxylic Acid) Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle
– ETS (Electronic transport system)  & Oxidative Phosphorylation
– Significance of HMP Shunt
– Glyoxylate Cycle
– Cyanide Resistant Pathway
Fermentation & Factors Affecting Cell Respiration – Fermentation
– Respiratory Quotient (R.Q)
– Factors Effecting Cell Respiration
– Difference Between Glycolysis & Kreb’s Cycle
Plant – Growth and Development   – Characteristics of Growth
– Seed Germination
– Experiment to study phases of plant growth & plant growth rate
– Types of growth
– Factors affecting plant growth
– Differentiation, Dedifferentiation, & Redifferentiation
– Development
– Plant Growth Regulators
– Example of Plant Growth regulators
– Characteristics of Plant Growth Regulators
– Physiological effect of Plant growth regulators
Plant Hormones – Auxins
– Physiological effect & Applications of Auxin
– Bio-Assay
– Gibberellins
– Physiology Effects & Applications
– ABSCISIC Acid (ABA C15H2004)
– Ethylene
– Cytokinin
– Other Growth Regulating Substances
Photoperiodism & Plant Movement – Photoperiodism
– Phytochrome
– Vernalisation or Yarovization
– Plant Senescence
– Theories of Senescence
– Abscission
– Plant Movement

Human Physiology

Digestion and Absorption   – Digestion
– Components of Digestive System
– Digestion, Absorption, & Assimilation of Carbohydrates, Proteins, & Lipids in human beings
– Calorific values of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
– Egestion
– Digestion of Vitamins & Minerals
– Appendix
– Peristalsis (Reverse Peristalsis)
– Diseases of the Digestive system
Alimentary canal & Digestive glands  
Process of Digestion – Absorption of Digested products
– Disorders of Nutritional & Digestive System (PEM, Constipation, Jaundice, Indigestion, Vomiting, Diarrhoea etc…)
– Formula of Dental
– Role of digestive enzymes & Gastrointestinal Hormones
Breathing and Exchange of Gases   – Difference between Breathing & Respiration
– Respiratory Organs
– Role of Diffusion in the Respiratory system
– Human Respiratory system
– Partial pressure of oxygen in blood
– Intra-Alveolar Pressure
Respiratory System – Mechanism of Breathing
– Respiratory volumes & Capacities
– Exchanges of Gases
– Transport of Gases (Transport of Oxygen, Transport of Carbon dioxide)
Regulation of Respiration – Deep or Forced or Voluntary Breathing
– Breathing rates
– Respiratory Pigments
– Disorders of Respiratory system (Emphysema, Asthma, Occupational respiratory disorders)
– Respiratory pigments
Body Fluids and Circulation   – Human heart & circulation
– Types of Blood vessels
– The Heart
– Chambers of Heart
– Heart Valves
– Heart Wall
– Mechanism of Blood Circulation/Coronary Circulation
– Electrocardiogram
– Pacemaker
– Diseases of the Heart
Blood Lymph & Spleen – Blood (composition of blood, Blood groups, Coagulation of blood)
– Lymph (Composition of Lymph & its function)
– Spleen
Circulatory Pathways  
Human Circulatory System – Structure of human heart and blood vessels
– Cardiac Cycle
– Cardiac output
– Electrocardiograph (ECG)
– Double  circulation
– Regulation of cardiac activity
– Portal system
– Disorders of circulatory system (hypertension, angina pectoris, coronary artery disease, heart failure)
– Difference between Open & Closed circulatory system
– Difference between Arteries & Veins
Excretory Products and Their Elimination   – Different Nitrogenous products in different organisms (Ammonotelic, Ureotelic, Uricotelic)
Excretory System of Human – Ureters
– Urinary Bladder
– Urethra
Urine Formation & Kidney functions – Composition of Urine
– Urea Formation
– Urine formation
– Osmoregulation
– Mechanism of Concentration of the filtrate
– Structure of Kidneys
– Nephrons
– Regulation of kidney function (Atrial natriuretic factor, Renin – angiotensin,  ADH, and diabetes insipidus)
– Role of other organs in excretion
– Disorders of the Excretory system (renal failure, uraemia, renal calculi, nephritis)
– Dialysis & Artificial kidney
– Summary of events occurring in a Nephron
– Differences between Male & Female Urethra
– Excretory organs of different organisms
Locomotion and Movement   – Locomotion
– Difference between Movement & Locomotion
– Locomotor Movements
– Types of movement (flagellar, ciliary, muscular)
– Types of Muscles
– Skeletal muscle (contractile proteins & muscle contraction)
– Skeletal system & its functions
– Movement of Cilia
Muscle – Types of Muscles (Skeletal Muscles, Visceral Muscles, Cardiac Muscles)
– Structure of Contractile proteins
– Mechanism of muscle contraction
Skeletal System – Bones of Cranium
– Facial bones
– Vertebral column
– Atlas Vertebra
– Lumber Vertebra
– Coccyx
– Sternum
– Bones of Fore Limbs & Hind Limbs
– Joints
-Disorders of Muscular and Skeletal system (arthritis, myasthenia gravis, muscular dystrophy, tetany, osteoporosis, gout)
Neural Control and Coordination   – Nerve Impulse
– Central Nervous system
– Structure of Human Brain (Forebrain, Midbrain, Hindbrain)
– Difference between Sympathetic & Parasympathetic Nervous system
– Human Sense Organs (Structure of the Eye & Ear, Stimulus & Response, Synapse, Second Brain in humans, Saltatory conduction)
– Sensory perception
Neuron/Nerve Cell – Nissl’s granules
– Cell processes
– Peripheral nervous system (PNS)  & Visceral nervous system (VNS)
– Myelinogenesis in the Peripheral Nervous system (PNS)
– Types of Neurons
– Action potential in Exciting stage
– Synaptic Transmission
– Synapse
– Neuroglia/Glial Cells
Nervous System – Central Nervous system
– Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
– Cerebrum
– Corpus Callosum
– Choroid Plexus
– Some Analysis Centre found in the Cerebral Hemisphere
– Functions of Brain
– Spinal cord
– Reflex Action
– Reflex Arch
– Peripheral Nervous System
– Spinal Nerves
– Autonomic Nervous system
– Comparative account of Nervous system in Rabbit & Human
– Eye (Refractive error of Eye)
– The Ear
Chemical Coordination and Integration   –  Classification of Hormones
– Hypothalamus
– Gonadal Hormones
– Hormones from the kidney
The Endocrine Glands – I – The Hypothalamus
– The Pituitary Gland
– The Pineal Gland
– Thyroid Gland
– Parathyroid Gland
– Thymus
– Adrenal Gland
The Endocrine Glands II – Pancreas
– Testis
– Ovary
– Mechanism of Hormone action
– Role of hormones as messengers and regulators
– Difference between Nervous & Endocrine Coordination
– Difference between Hormone & Enzymes
– Number of Hormones Secreted by Different Endocrine Glands
– Anterior Pituitary Hormones
– Posterior Pituitary Hormones
– Hormones, Their chemical nature & functions
– Disease caused by Hormonal Irregularities (Diabetes, Dwarfism, Cretinism, Acromegaly, Goiter, Exophthalmic goiter, Addision’s disease)
– Hypoactivity and Hyperactivity and related disorders


Reproduction in Organisms   – Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species
– Asexual reproduction Modes of reproduction-Asexual and sexual reproduction
– Modes – Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation
– Vegetative propagation in plants.
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants   – Flower structure
– Development of male and female gametophytes
– Pollination-types, agencies and examples
– Outbreedings devices
– Pollen-Pistil interaction
– Double fertilization
– Post fertilization events – Development of endosperm and embryo, Development of seed and formation of fruit
– Special modes – Apomixis, Parthenocarpy, Polyembryony
– Significance of seed & fruit formation.
Human Reproduction   – Male and female reproductive systems
– Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary
– Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis
– Menstrual cycle
– Fertilisation embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation
– Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea)
– Parturition (Elementary idea)
– Lactation (Elementary idea).
Reproductive Health   – Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD)
– Birth control – Need and Methods, Contraception & Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP)
– Amniocentesis
– Infertility & assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT (Elementary idea for general awareness).

Genetics and Evolution

Principles of Inheritance and Variation   – Mendelian Inheritance (Mendelian genetics)
– Deviations from Mendelism-Incomplete dominance, Co-dominance, Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy
– Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance
– Inheritance patterns
– Chromosome theory of inheritance
– Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination – in humans, birds, honey bee
– Linkage and crossing over
– Sex linked inheritance – Haemophilia, Colour blindness
– Mendelian disorder in humans – Thalassemia
– Chromosomal disorders in humans
– Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes
Molecular Basis of Inheritance (Molecular Genetics)   – Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material
– Structure of DNA and RNA
– DNA packaging
– DNA replication
– Central dogma– Transcription, genetic code, translation
– Gene expression and regulation – Lac Operon
– Genome and human ganeome project
– DNA fingerprinting
Evolution   – Origin of life
– Biological evolution and evidences for biological evolution (Paleontological, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence)
– Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution
– Patterns of evolution
– Mechanism of evolution – Variation (Mutation and Recombination) & Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection
– Gene flow and genetic drift
– Hardy – Weinberg’s principle
– Adaptive Radiation
– Population Genetics & Human Evolution

Biology and Human Welfare

Human Health and Diseases   – Pathogens
– Parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis, Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm)
– Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines
– Cancer, HIV and AIDs
– Adolescene, drug and alcholol abuse.
Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production Improvement in Food Production  – Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Biofortification, Apiculature and Animal husbandry.
Microbes in Human Welfare   – In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment, energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers
– Antibiotics
– Production and judicious use.

Biotechnology and Its Applications

Biotechnology – Principles and Processes   – Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
Biotechnology and its Application   – Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy
– Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops
– Transgenic Animals
– Biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.

Ecology and Environment

Ecology   Explain Ecology
Types of Ecology
Role of Ecology in our lives
Scope of Ecology
Organisms and Populations Organisms and environment – Habitat and niche, Population and ecological adaptations
– Population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism
– Population attributes, Population growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution
– Ecological Communities
– Biomes
– Biotic  & Abiotic factors of Living Organisms
– Strategies to adapt to Abiotic factors
Ecosystem   – Ecosystem Structure
– Types of Ecosystem
– Patterns & components of Ecosystem
– Ecosystem services
– Productivity and decomposition
– Energy flow
– Pyramids of number, biomass, energy
– Nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous)
– Ecological succession
– Ecological services – carbon fixation, seed dispersal, pollination, oxygen release (in brief).
Biodiversity and its Conservation   – Concept of biodiversity
– Patterns of biodiversity
– Importance of biodiversity
– Loss of biodiversity
– Biodiversity conservation
– Hotspots, endangered organisms, biosphere reserves, extinction, national parks, Red Data Book, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites
Environmental Issues   – Air pollution and its control
– Water pollution and its control
– Agrochemicals & their effects
– Solid waste management
– Radioactive waste management
– Greenhouse effect & climate change
– Ozone layer depletion
– Deforestation
– Any one case study as success story addressing environmental issue(s)
– Effects of human intervention

BioChemistry Or Biological Chemistry

  – General biochemistry
– Pathobiochemistry
– Structural biology
– Molecular & Cellular biology
– Molecular medicine
– Cancer research
– Virology
– Immunology
– Plant molecular biology and biochemistry
– Novel experimental methodologies
  – Chemical Biology
– Epigenetics and DNA Mutation
– Biosensors and Diagnostics
– Drug Design
– Biophysics and Structural Biology
– Biofuel Cells
– Biomaterials and Drug Delivery
– Interfacial and Bioanalytical Chemistry (IBAC)
– Enzymology



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