Bismuth Bi (Element 83) of Periodic Table

83 Bi (Bismuth)

Appearance:  lustrous brownish silver

Mass number:  209

Standard atomic weight:  208.9804 g/mol

Atomic number (Z):  83

Electrons:  83

Protons:  83

Neutrons:  126

Group:  15

Period:  6

Block:  p

Element category:  Post-transition metal

Electrons per shell:  K2,L 8, M18, N32, O18, P5

Electron configuration:  1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d105s25p64f145d106s26p3

Phase:  Solid

Melting point:  544.7 K (271 oC)

Boiling point:  1837 K (1564 oC)

Density:  9.78 g/cm3 (In solid), 10.05 g/cm3 (When liquid at m.p)

Half Lif(s): 6.00E+26

Lifetime(s):  8.70E+26

Decay mode: α decay

Neutron cross section (Brans):  0.034

Heat of fusion:  11.30 kJ/mol

Heat of vaporization:  179 kJ/mol

Molar heat capacity:  25.52 J/(mol.K)

Oxidation states:  5, 4, 3, 2, 1, -1, -2, -3

Ion Charge:  Bi3+  Bi5+

Electronegativity:  Pauling scale: 2.02

Valence:  5

Electron affinity:  91.2 kJ/mol

Ionization energies:  1st: 703 kJ/mol, 2nd: 1610 kJ/mol, 3rd: 2466 kJ/mol

Atomic radius:  empirical; 156 pm

Covalent radius:  148±4 pm

Vander waals radius:  207 pm

Crystal structure:  Rhombohedral

Sound Speed:  1790 m/s

Thermal expansion:  13.4 μm/(m∙K)

Thermal conductivity:  7.97 W/(m∙K)

s Electrical resistivity:  1.29 μΩ∙m

Electrical conductivity:  770000 S/m

Electrical type: Conductor

Magnetic ordering:  Diamagnetic

Magnetic susceptibility:  -280.1×10-6 cm3/mol

Volume magnetic susceptibility:  -0.00017

Mass magnetic susceptibility:  -1.7×10-5 cm3/g

Molar magnetic susceptibility:  -3.6×10-9 cm3/mol

Young’s modulus:  32 GPa

Shear modulus:  12 Gpa

Bulk modulus:  31 GPa

Poisson ratio:  0.33

Mohs hardness:  2.25

Brinell hardness:  70-95 MPa

CAS Number:  7440-69-9

Discovery:  Claude Francois Geoffroy (1753)

Isotopes:  207Bi 208Bi 209Bi 210Bi 210mBi

Bismuth Uses: 

It is Brittle, So mixed with other metal to make it useful. Used in Fire detector and extinguishers, electric fuses and solders. Bismuth oxide is used as a yello pigment for cosmetics and paints

Biological role:  It is non-toxic

Natural abundance of Bismuth: 

Bismuth occurs as the native metal, and in Ores such as bismuthinite and bismite. Major source by product o f refined lead, copper, tin silver and gold ores.


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